All about Karelia


The flag of the Uhta republic
From IX to XII century Karelia was the part of Kiev Rus. From XII century it was included in Novgorod republic. In 1293 Sweden conquered a part of Karelia and Viborg was founded there. From 1478 Karelia (together with Novgorod) became a part of Russia. After peace in Stolbovo (1617) Sweden got Kexholm region. Olonets became administative center of Karelia. After the Great Northern war (1721) Russia got Kexholm region and Viborg back.
The Civil war started after the revolution at 1917. At 1920 in Uhta (now Kalevala) independent Uhta republic was founded. It existed to 1922 when the Red Army took over Uhta. At the same time south-western Karelia (the Karelian isthmus and Ladoga Karelia) became a part of independent Finnland. After the Winter War with Finnland in 1940 the Soviet Union got south-western Karelia. Then Karelian-Finnish Republic that was included in the USSR was created. It existed to 1956 when it became an autonomous republic. Under the Second World War 1941-1944 Karelia was occupied by the finnish army. 28 June 1944 the russian army liberated Petrozavodsk and in the end of July the whole Karelia was liberated. To 1950 the economy was completely restored. From 1960-s the paper-, mine- and machine industry started to develop in the republic.